In an essay on Mao Zeodong’s philosophical thought Richard Johnson writes:
Because, relative to that of the Communist, the socioeconomic persona of the proletariat is limited–and, give the empirical existence of political vicissitudes, may remain so indefinitely–the chance that from such a basis alone will be launched a coherent, direct, and enlightened politics, is slight. Understandable then, in this light, is the enigmatic logic of the Manifesto, where, inscribed among the historic character of communists, is the task of the “formation of the proletariat into a class.” The apparent paradox that an entity that is already a class, must be made to become a class, is comprehensible when it is remembered that the historical process of consciousness is not identical to the consciousness of the historical process; that, moreover, “ideological forms” have a historical depth related to, but not immediately determined by, material development. It is thus by this logic that the qualitative transformation of empirical, perhaps sporadic, political action into direct, and conscious, class-based political programs exists within the historical scope of an organizing medium led by a group of enlightened elites, vis Communists (211-2).
Johnson, Ricahrd. ”A Compendium of the Infinite: Exercises of Political Purpose in the Philosophy of Mao Zedong.” In Critical Perspectives on Mao Zedong’s Thought, eds. Arif Dirlik, et. al., 207-233. Amherst, New York: Humanity Books.